By J. Shields (Auth.)
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Modifiers There are many chemically inert ingredients which are added to adhesive compositions to alter their end-use or fabrication properties. Modifiers include fillers, extenders, thinners, plasticisers, stabilisers, or wetting agents, and each material is used for a special purpose. Fillers are non-adhesive materials which improve the working properties, permanence, strength, or other qualities of the adhesive bond and those commonly used are; wood flour, silica, alumina, titanium oxide, metal powders, china clay and earths, slate dust, asbestos and glass fibres.
The acrylic systems possess high peel, impact, and shear strengths, and bond metals well provided service conditions are not too severe. Environmental resistance with plastics joints is excellent but has yet to be established for metals subject to high humidities and temperatures. Single part systems are available that cure within a minute at room temperature. Very high strength is a feature of the epoxide systems which are generally superior to the acrylics for metal assemblies, and have better heat resistance.
Manufacturers' literature was found particularly useful for confirmation of such adhesive properties as colour, available form, processing factors, and applications. These data were necessary to supplement material from published sources and effort has been made to keep the section free from any trade bias. It has already been noted earlier that adhesives based on the same material may show considerable variation in their properties where modifying materials have been added to the formulation. Properties are dependent, not only on the adhesive composition, but also on the conditions under which it is prepared and used.