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By M. Ahmad

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The voltage-ramp technique is performed through a firing-angle ramp of SCRs. Thus, although better than the non-electronic starter methods, it does not guarantee a more effective control over current and acceleration during starting process and over deceleration during stopping process. Study on the Energy Efficiency of Soft Starting of an Induction Motor with Torque Control 35 Fig. 2. Basic diagram of a soft-starter. The angle ramp, shown in Fig. , the induction motor voltage is controlled through a firing angle ramp in an open loop.

Force sensor model robot end-effector and the force sensor respectively. k s , k e and De are force sensor stiffness, environmental stiffness and the environment viscous damping coefficient, respectively. x and xs are the positions of the robot end-effector and the force sensor, respectively. The following 513 Sensorless Torque/Force Control Sensorless Torque/Force Control motion equations describe the contact mechanism depicted in Fig. 1 m x¨ + k s ( x − xs ) + f dist1 = f (1) ms x¨s − k s ( x − xs ) + f dist2 = − f ext (2) f ext = ze xs (3) 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 Imaginary axis Imaginary axis where ze is the environmental impedance.

Nevertheless, one would like to spare the control system having position or velocity sensor attached to the robot end-effector. With the observer presented in (Khalil & Sabanovic, 2010b;b), the position and velocity of the non-collocated end-effector can be observed from measurements taken from the input (actuator) of the dynamical system. This in turn, spares the non-collocated end-effector of the robot having any attached sensors. 579 Sensorless Torque/Force Control Sensorless Torque/Force Control In the next Section, a novel observer is introduced based on the action reaction law of dynamics in order to allow realization of the force observer without taking the velocity measurement from the dynamical system but rather its estimate.

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