Download Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk by Peter L. Bernstein PDF

By Peter L. Bernstein

With the inventory industry breaking documents virtually day-by-day, leaving longtime industry analysts shaking their heads and revising their forecasts, a learn of the concept that of probability turns out particularly well timed. Peter Bernstein has written a entire background of man's efforts to appreciate danger and chance, starting with early gamblers in old Greece, carrying on with throughout the 17th-century French mathematicians Pascal and Fermat and as much as glossy chaos idea. alongside the best way he demonstrates that realizing possibility underlies every thing from video game concept to bridge-building to winemaking.

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Example text

In sum, indicators of social capital in Japanese society do not suggest radical change in social capital in the Japanese business system. While the potential for the creation of social capital through associations is overall somewhat lower than in the United States, the considerably higher density of business associations in Japan suggests ample breeding ground for inter-corporate social capital. Business system The top layer of the Redding business systems model consists of ownership, inter-corporate networking, and management.

Ownership Networks • Employment & unemployment protection • Short- vs. 2. Main elements in the construction of a business system (following Redding 2005) • Formal logics • Individualism vs. collectivism Identity • Short- vs. long-term • Ends of economic activity Rationale • Organization of labor • Conditions of use • Social security • Education and training Human capital • Networks across sectors • Collaboration of competitors • Networked production chains • Sources of funding Financial capital • Corporate governance • Horizontal/vertical integration • Nature of ownership control (direct, market, alliance) 26 Changing Japanese capitalism Two caveats are in order.

Hofstede (1997) concludes that on an individualism scale from 0 (most collectivist) to 100 (most individualistic), Japan scores 46, as compared with 67 for Germany and 91 for the United States. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) find similar results in their study, with Japan ranking lowest among the three countries in terms of measures of individual freedom, desirability of individual credit, and desirability of individual responsibility. 3 percent in the United States. The most recent comparative study, the GLOBE project under Robert House (House et al.

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