By Isamu Nouchi (auth.), Kenji Omasa Ph.D., Hiharu Saji Ph.D., Shohab Youssefian Ph.D., Noriaki Kondo Ph.D. (eds.)
Air pollutants is ubiquitous in industrialized societies, inflicting a bunch of environmental difficulties. it truly is therefore necessary to visual display unit and decrease pollutants degrees. a few plant species already are being exploited as detectors (for phytomonitoring) and as scavengers (for phytoremediation) of air toxins. With advances in biotechnology, it truly is now possible to change vegetation for a much broader variety of phytomonitoring and phytoremediation purposes. pollution and Plant Biotechnology offers fresh leads to this box, together with plant responses in the course of phytomonitoring, pollution-resistant plant species, imaging analysis of plant responses, and using novel transgenic vegetation, in addition to studies of uncomplicated plant body structure and biochemistry the place acceptable. Researchers and scholars operating in plant biotechnology and the environmental sciences or contemplating new parts of research will locate this quantity a worthwhile reference.
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Extra resources for Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology: Prospects for Phytomonitoring and Phytoremediation
12 I. Nouchi and Taylor (1997) recently proposed that ionic changes in cells increase the loss of a wide range of metabolites, induce enzyme activation, and alte·r normal gene transcription. , proteins being more sensitive than lipids to 0 3). Plant growth and yield are inherently linked to photosynthetic carbon assimilation and the subsequent partitioning of this photoassimilate. Although the adverse effects of 0 3 on the overall photosynthetic process, as revealed by gas exchange measurements, are well known, there are few reports of its effects on the processes of electron transport on thylakoid membranes and CO 2 fixation in stroma.
Nouchi (1988) observed that although exposure to PAN concentrations as high as 95 ppb for 4 h resulted in visible foliar damage to kidney bean plants, photosynthetic and transpiration rates remained at almost normal levels during exposure, and only decreased abruptly and considerably after the development of water-soaked symptoms on the leaves. These results indicate that PAN does not affect stomatal Fig. S. Glazing on lower surface of leaf beet (Beta vurgaris L. var. ) caused by ambient PAN Responses of Whole Plants to Air Pollutants 17 closure until appearance of the initial visible symptoms, and that PAN may strongly attack stroma and membrane structures of chloroplasts even after cessation of exposure.
For example, in the soybean of a greenhouse experiment there was no interaction in growth parameters (Norby and Luxmoor 1983) or physiological processes (Norby et al. 1985). Similarly, no interactive effect between acid rain and 0 3 was found on growth parameters of radish and alfalfa (Johnson and Shriner 1986; Rebbek and Brennan 1984). As for tree species, Matsumura et al. (1998) investigated dry matter production and gas exchange rates of Japanese cedar, Nikko fir, Japanese white birch, and Japanese zelkova seedlings exposed to 0 3 and simulated acid rain for 20 weeks.