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Comprehensive Comparison of Trace Metal Concentrations in Inhaled Air Samples 43 Mortality studies of haematite (Fe2O3) miners (containing up to 66% iron) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer, generally among smokers, in several mining areas such as Cumberland, Lorraine, Kiruna and Krivoi Rog. In experimental studies, ferric oxide has not been found to be carcinogenic; however, the experiments were not carried out with haematite (71). The presence of radon in the atmosphere of haematite mines has been suggested to be an important carcinogenic factor.

Death may occur within 24 hours, but the usual course runs from 3 to 7 days. Cancer of the respiratory tract has been reported in excess frequency among workers engaged in the production of insecticides containing lead arsenate and calcium arsenate, in vine-growers spraying insecticides containing inorganic copper and arsenic compounds, and in smelter workers exposed to inorganic compounds of arsenic and a number of other metals. The latency time between onset of exposure and the appearance of cancer is long, usually between 15 and 30 years.

2 Acute toxicity Inhalation of cadmium compounds at concentrations above 1 mg Cd/m3 in air for 8 hours, or at higher concentrations for shorter periods, may lead to chemical pneumonitis, and in severe cases pulmonary oedema. Symptoms generally occur within 1 to 8 hours after exposure. They are influenza-like and similar to those in metal fume fever. The more severe symptoms of chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema may have a latency period up 38 Air Pollution – Monitoring, Modelling, Health and Control to 24 hours.

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