By Dr. Robert Guderian (auth.)
Emissions of gaseous air toxins have elevated within the final years even with elevated controls and challenge for air caliber. Predictions of destiny improvement additionally point out additional raise in emissions has to be anticipated. From an in depth research of gas use in traditional energy crops in and for household heating, Brocke and Schade (1971) and Schade (1975) are expecting that sulfur dioxide (S02) emissions within the Federal Republic of Germany increases from '3. five million t in 1969, over four. 2 million t in 1973, to four. 6 million t in 1980. Rasch (1971) predicts that emission of hydrogen chloride (HCI) from burning of wastes increases from a gift 8000 t/year to approximately one hundred thousand t in 1980. Emission of gaseous fluoride compounds, in North Rhine Westphalia by myself, are anticipated to extend from 7500 t in 1969 to 8800 t in 1985 (MAGS, 1972). related predic tions have additionally been made within the united states (Heggestadt and Heck, 1971). A doubling of S02 emissions from oil and especially coal-fired energy crops is anticipated among 1960 and 1980 (Wood, 1968; Lewis et aI. , 1974). while it truly is thought of that overall keep an eye on of air pollution is technically and particularly economically very unlikely, it's important that, sooner or later, emissions are managed inside a technical and monetary framework to such an quantity that ambient pollutant concentrations close to the floor current no probability to guy or his surroundings (BImSchG, 1974).
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10 13 80 '\. 18 ~ 22 26 60 40 20 31 Fig. 25. Extent of leaf injury and sulfur accumulation in alder after exposure to various S02 concentrations compared with leaf age and apparent photosynthesis Leaf Age 47 the stem (van Haut and Stratmann, 1970). Plants with a rosette growth habit, such as beet, celery ( Apium graveolens), and lettuce (L. sativa), show injury first on the outside leaves rather than on younger innermost leaves. With age, sensitivity moves progressively toward the center of the plant.
In an experiment, carried out in plastic chambers in the field, resistance of oats (Avena sativa, FHimingsgold) was clearly increased during the day when sulfur accumulation and leaf injury are compared. Increase in resistance during the day appears to be connected with sugar content of the leaves (Guderian, 1970), as shown in experiments in which bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris nanus) in different glucose solutions, were exposed to S02 (Fig. 21). Dugger et aI. (1962, 1963) also found a clear correlation between sugar content ofleaves and resistance to ozone.
Although plant responses to single pollutants have been extensively investigated over several decades, the effects of pollutants in combination present a completely new field of study. Such effects include plant responses to several pollutants acting at the same time or alternately. In heavily industrialized areas, a mixture of various pollutants always occurs, whereas in less industrialized areas, usually as a result of changes in wind direction, single pollutants may occur one after the other.