By Kenneth S. Miller.

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**Sample text**

C. d. all if a any food is sweet, it has honey in it. All honey contains Hence sugar is sweet. Hence any food containing sugar is sweet. Hence any food which is sweet contains sugar. Hence honey is sweet. 8. If a. 6. c. d. " " "If something is not it is not e. , 9. Whenever My My a. b. going to rain my rheumatism bothers me. rheumatism bothers me. Hence it is going to rain. rheumatism does not bother me. Hence it is not going to it is rain. It is not raining. Hence my rheumatism does not bother me.

Will (2) It is not in the interest of the nation to adopt any policy which makes the United States, in peace or in war, needlessly dependent upon the will of any foreign nation for any essential supply. Applying these principles to foreign trade and con. . sidering the nation as a unit, we one hour of foreign labor, only 18. If a. b. 19. I do a useful thing if we exchange the one hour of foreign labor could not have been performed by an American. We do not, as is sometimes imagined, increase our wealth if we exchange one hour of American labor for two or more hours of foreign labor.

This law or property one or both of the numbers of the Cf. reference 31, num- express this briefly commutative. In symbols to writing when a and sum. sum is zero; THE POSITIVE INTEGERS 32 AND ZERO [Ch. ^^^^HHMMBMVa^^^^^^Hn^ai^^MHM^ you have three dogs and I have none, + = 3; and the total number of dogs is the same if I have three dogs and you have none. Also, if each has none we both together have none. That multiplication is commutative is not nearly so apparent. At the outset, notice that if each of three persons has since, for example, we both have if three and 3 peanuts we could find by counting that altogether they five had fifteen peanuts.