By Professor Dr. Roberto Bargagli (auth.)
Choice impressive name! (January 2006)
The photo of Antarctica as a logo of the final nice desert and pristine setting has replaced significantly within the final twenty years. Environmental difficulties resembling the ozone gap and the break-up of ice-shelves have proven that Antarctica is inextricably associated with worldwide approaches and uncovered to the influence of human actions within the remainder of the realm. This quantity presents an summary of weather swap facts, its results at the constitution and functioning of Antarctic ecosystems, and the incidence and biking of chronic contaminants. It discusses the original physico-chemical features of the Antarctic setting, ecophysiological diversifications of terrestrial and marine organisms, the move of contaminants in pelagic and neritic nutrients chains and the potential results for animals at greater trophic degrees. The textual content concludes with attainable destiny eventualities of weather swap and atmospheric infection and the position of Antarctic organisms within the early detection of environmental perturbations.
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Additional resources for Antarctic Ecosystems: Environmental Contamination, Climate Change, and Human Impact
This mass flux across the Antarctic coastline is due to the solar insolation cycle, which is responsible for very large changes in surface atmospheric pressures up to the subtropics. According to Bromwich and Parish (1998), seasonal changes in surface pressure over Antarctica influence mass redistribution over nearly the entire Southern Hemisphere. Interactions between Antarctica and the subtropics are also affected by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO), which increases the transfer of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere and influences global mean surface temperatures (Sun and Trenberth 1998).
E. through the area between the Ross Ice Shelf and the Antarctic Peninsula (Bromwich et al. 1995). This sector has the largest interannual moisture variability in Antarctica, particularly in conjunction with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon (Trenberth and Hoar 1996). Imagery from geostationary and polar orbiting satellites shows that the area of the Southern Ocean near 60°S is the cloudiest place in the Southern Hemisphere (about 85–90 % cloud cover throughout the year). In coastal regions of Antarctica near 70° S, the total cloud cover is about 45–50 %, and a further decrease occurs inland from the coast.
According to these authors, the average annual net long-wave cooling of Antarctic surfaces exceeds net solar heating by 10–20 W m–2. A positive average annual radiation balance occurs in Antarctic areas free of ice; however, their role in the radiation balance of the continent is almost negligible because of their small surface area compared to that of Antarctica. Thus, in the global energy budget, the radiational losses of Antarctica play a very important role in determining the poleward flow of warm air masses from tropical regions.