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Additional resources for Assembly Language Programming Organization of the IBM PC
Vice) random access memory, RAM read-only 1nemory, ROM re&ris~er system board video adapter word A unit that usually denotes 1 million, but in computer terminology 1 mega is 220 (or 1,048,576) 2 20 or 1,048,576 bytes 1,000,000 cycles per second A memory circuit that can stor~ one byte A memory byte or memory word Two memory bytes A processing unit fabricated on a single circuit chip The main circuit board of the computer Numeric or symbolic code denoting the type of operation for an instruction The data specified in an instruction 1/0 device Memory circuits that (an be read or written Memory circuits that can only be read A Cl'U circuit for storing information Motherboard Computer circuit that converts computer data into video signals for the display monitor 16 bits Exercises 1.
This means that 9h + Dh = 16h, so 16h - 9h = Dh. In the third column. -\IJ - J =11 h ·-Ah. In row A, 11 appears in colurnn 7 sol lh - Ah= 7h. finally in the last column, we have Ch - Bh = 1. 1 0010 The unit's column is easy, 1 - 1 =0. We must horrow to do the two's column, getting 10- 1=1. To do the four's column, we must again borrow, computir«; 10 - 1 - I (since we borrowed from this column) = 0. Finally in 1:ie l:i~t column, we have 0 - 0 = 0. ,c:. ZC' of numbers that can be stored in a register or memory location.
In protected mode, it Giil emulate the 80286. It also has a virt1111/ 8086 mode de)ign1:d lo run multipll' 8080 app1°cations under memory protection. The 386, in protected mode, can addre)s 4 gigabytes of physit:al memory, and 64 lernbylc~ (2 46 bytes) of virtual memory. Chapter 3 Organization of the IBM Personal Computers · 39 Tl1e 386S X has essentially the same internal stracture as the 386, but it has only a 16-bit data bus. The 80486 and 80486SX Microprocessors Introduced in 1989, the 80486 (or 486), is another 32-bit microprocessor.