By Kathleen C. Taylor
The use of catalytic converters for the purification of automobile exhaust gases is a comparatively new expertise which used to be introduced into lifestyles by way of social pressures for the protection of applicable environmental stipulations. the vast majority of catalytic practitioners were in a position to watch the expansion of this expertise from its inception to its present country of class. automobile catalytic converter expertise is now in a mature country, and this bankruptcy from Vol. five Catalysis: technological know-how and know-how through Dr. ok. C. Taylor offers a evaluation which covers either the method chemistry and crucial converter layout elements. Contents 1. advent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Emission laws within the usa. three. Exhaust Emission features. . three four. 1981 Emission regulate expertise. five A. Converters. . . five B. keep watch over method. 7 eight ~. Catalyst Screening . 6. Laboratory trying out. .10 7. The Chemical Reactions thirteen eight. Composition of Three-Way Catalysts. sixteen A. Rhodium 17 21 B. Platinum. C. Palladium 22 D. Iridium . 22 23 E. Ruthenium and Nickel. F. Cerium Oxide ..... 23 G. look for possible choices to Nohle Metals 24 nine. Catalyst helps . 25 A. Pellets .... 26 B. Monoliths . . 26 10. The temporary habit of Three-Way Catalysts 27 II. Deterioration of Three-Way Catalysts. 35 A. Thermal results. . . . 35 B. Phosphorus Poisoning. . . 37 C. Lead Poisoning. . . . . . · 38 D. Catalyst Poisoning through Sulfur · forty 12. The 0.4 NO,; examine goal. · forty-one thirteen. keep watch over of Diesel Particulate Emissions.
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Extra resources for Automobile Catalytic Converters
Eisele, H. : Paper No. 730566, presented to Society of Automotive Engineers, February, 1973 23. : Paper No. 770197, presented to Society of Automotive Engineers 46 24. : Paper No. 800399, presented to Society of Automotive Engineers, February, 1980 25. Wotring, W. ; Meguerian, G. ; Gandhi, H. ; McCuiston, F. : Paper No. 780608, presented to Society of Automotive Engineers, June, 1978 26. : Paper No. 790306, presented to Society of Automotive Engineers, February, 1979 27. Sell, J. ; Herz, R. ; Monroe, D.
1. 1 steady-state amounts . The total amount of oxygen held in a catalytic converter depends upon the rate of reduction, the volume of catalyst in the converter, the space velocity, the catalyst composition, and the catalyst temperature [29, 126, 127]. Three-way catalysts are able to retain some reducing chemical species during exposure to rich exhaust gas [29, 126, 127]. Kaneko et al.  reported that at 823 K a Rh containing three-way catalyst retained reducing species somewhat more easily during exposure to C3H6 than during exposure to C3H s ' but CO was not retained.
I 6000 I I I ~ "'5 0 = ... ----- - -- ----- / I 4000 I '-' 2000 00 a 2 lime/s 12 0 b 6 lime/s 12 8 Figure 18. 5). 1). The dashed curve gives the approximate, smoothed result that would have been obtained if the catalyst response were instantaneous. (Reproduced with permission from ref. ) 31 Symmetrical cycling of the A j F at I Hz about the stoichiometric composition leads to lower conversion of NO and CO compared with an uncycled stoichiometrically balanced feed [29, 48, 65]. 5 A jF unit than the stoichiometrically balanced composition, the time-averaged conversion of CO exceeds the conversion obtained using a steady feed with a composition characteristic of the mean A jF of the cycled feed [23, 29, 48, 65].