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Groenewegen; H. Peters; J. Haverkamp. Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Candida bombicola Sophorolipids and Product Formed on Hydrolysis by Cutinase. Anal. , 1995,230, 135-148. ; L. Daniels. Evaluation of Sophorolipid Biosurfactant Production by Candida Productionand Modification of Sophorolipids from Agricultural Feedstocks 0 47 bombicola Using Animal Fat. Biores. , 1995,54, 143-1 50. ; R. Light. ]. Lip. , 1972a, 13,663-671. ; R Light. ]. Biol. , 1972b, 247, 1375-1386.
Inoue. Sophorolipids from Torulopsis bombicola: Possible Relation to Alkane Uptake. Appl. Environ. , 1982, 43, 1278-1283. Kappeli, 0. Cytochromes P-450 of Yeasts. Microbiol. , 1986, 50, 244-258. Kastelic-Suhadolc,T. Cholesteryl Glucoside in Candida bogoriensis. Biochim. Biophys. , 1980, 620,322-325. Kotrba, R. The Glycerine Spread. , September 2007, pp. 50-55. Asperger. Ashby et al. Yeast Candida apicokz: Heterogeneity and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Mediated Cloning of Two Genes. Yeart, 1996, 12, 565-575.
While yields were affected by the change from glucose to soy molasses, sophorolipid structural composition remained relatively constant. By using soy molasses in conjunction with oleic acid as the lipid co-substrate, 97% of the sophorolipids were synthesized in the lactone form. In comparison, glucose/oleic acid fermentations resulted in sophorolipids that were greater than 99% lactonic. In addition, the distribution of sophorolipid lactones between the two systems containing yeast extract and urea was also comparable.