By Shigeo Katoh
Written through well known professors drawing on their event received within the world's so much cutting edge biotechnology industry, Japan, this complex textbook offers a great and complete advent to the most recent advancements within the box. It presents an array of questions & solutions and contours a variety of utilized examples, extending to business functions with chapters on scientific units and downstream operations in bioprocesses.Useful for college kids learning the basics of biochemical engineering, in addition to for chemical engineers already operating during this very important and increasing box.
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Extra info for Biochemical Engineering: A Textbook for Engineers, Chemists and Biologists
5 Transfer Phenomena in Turbulent Flow The transfer of heat and/or mass in turbulent flow occurs mainly by eddy activity, namely the motion of gross fluid elements which carry heat and/or mass. Transfer by heat conduction and/or molecular diffusion is much smaller compared to that by eddy activity. In contrast, heat and/or mass transfer across the laminar sublayer near a wall, in which no velocity component normal to the wall exists, occurs solely by conduction and/or molecular diffusion. A similar statement holds for momentum transfer.
In more complicated cases the differential method may be useful, but this requires more data points. Analysis by the integration method can generally be summarized as follows. The rate equation for a reactant A is usually given as a function of the concentrations of reactants. Thus, dCA ¼ k f ðCi Þ ÀrA ¼ À dt where f(Ci) is an assumed function of the concentrations Ci. 2 Fundamental Reaction Kinetics If f(Ci) is expressed in terms of CA, and k is independent of CA, the above equation can be integrated to give: À ZCA CA0 dCA ¼k f ðCA Þ Zt dt ¼ k t ð3:9Þ 0 where CA0 is the initial concentration of A.
The temperature gradient in the turbulent core is much smaller, as heat transfer occurs mainly by convection – that is, by mixing of the gross fluid elements. The gradient becomes smaller with increasing distance from the wall due to increasing turbulence. The temperature gradient in the buffer region between the laminar sublayer and the turbulent core is smaller than in the laminar sublayer, but greater than in the turbulent core, and becomes smaller with increasing distance from the wall. Conduction and convection are comparable in the buffer region.