By Anthony Charles Neville
This ebook tackles a big unsolved challenge in developmental biology--how does chemistry create structure outdoors cells? The underlying speculation of this booklet is that the fibers are oriented via self-assembly simply open air the cells in the course of a cellular liquid crystalline part ahead of stabilization; the writer demonstrates that the most typical orientations of the fibers are plywood laminates (orthogonal and helicoidal), and as parallel fibers. ultimately, he exhibits that those should be imitated within the laboratory through liquid crystalline chemical substances. Many tremendous images will relief the initiated in spotting a number of the types of fibers.
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This publication tackles an enormous unsolved challenge in developmental biology--how does chemistry create structure open air cells? The underlying speculation of this booklet is that the fibers are oriented via self-assembly simply open air the cells in the course of a cellular liquid crystalline part sooner than stabilization; the writer demonstrates that the most common orientations of the fibers are plywood laminates (orthogonal and helicoidal), and as parallel fibers.
Extra resources for Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development beyond the Cell Membrane
2a Algal cell walls An excellent example (Fig. 2) of a cell wall with orthogonally oriented cellulose microfibrils is seen in the alga Eremosphaera viridis (Weidinger & Ruppel, 1985). g. lA. Selected systems with sheets of parallel fibres oriented mutually either at 90° (orthogonal) or at some other large angle. Many systems occur in the body wall in so-called fibre-wound animals (Wainwright, 1988). 12). Group Algae Platyhelminthes Nematoda Nematomorpha Nemertea Annelida Pogonophora Priapulida Sipunculoidea Chaetognatha Arthropoda Mollusca Chordata Genus & species Oocystis solitaria Eremosphaera viridis (cell walls) Chaetomorpha Apjohnia Cladophora Dictyosphaerica Glaucocystis Siphonocladus Ascaris lumbricoides (cuticle) Paragordius varius Amphipora /actiftorens (basement lameUa) Chaetopterus (dwelling tube) Lumbricus (cuticle) Allolobophora (cuticle) Paralvinella grasslei (cuticle) Eisenia foetida (cuticle) Alvine/la pompejana (cuticle) (integument) Priapulus caudatus (basement lameUa) Phascolion strombi (basement lamella) Sagitta elegans (basal lamina) Oryctes rhinoceros (eggshell chorion; orthogonal systems are very rare in arthropods) Lolliguncula brevis (mantle collagen tunic) Loligo pealei (mantle collagen tunic) Bombinator (tadpole) (epidermal basement lamella) Xenopus laevis (tadpole) (epidermal basement lamella) Amblystoma opacum (larva) (epidermal basement lamella) Fundulus heteroclitus (basement lamella) Scyliorhinus caniculus (egg capsule) Latimeria chalumnae (scales) Amia calva (scales) Pleuronectes p/alessa (scales) Pleuronectes limanda (scales) Pleuronectes microcephalus (scales) Hippoglossus vulgaris (scales) Rima temporaria (spectacle of eye) Mus domesticus (cornea) Reference Robinson & Herzog (1977) Weidinger & Ruppel (1985) Preston (1952) Preston (1974) Preston (1974) Preston (1974) Willison & Brown (1978) Preston (1974) Clark & Cowey (1958) Bird & Deutsch (1957) Harris & Crofton (1957) Swanson (1974) Cowey (1952) Brown & McGee-Russell (1971) Rudall (1968) Reed & Rudall (1948) Lepescheux (1988) Richards (1984) Gaill et al.
The basement lame/la can be revealed by enzymatic digestion of the overlying cells and basal lamina - a method used by Overton (1976). Although extracellular, the basement lame/la plays a vital part in morphogenesis and wound repair. (B & C) Stages in the recovery after wounding of epidermal basement lame/la in the skin of an amphibian axolotl (Amblystoma). At an early stage (8) the gap in the basement lamella is plugged with collagen fibrils, but these are randomly oriented. Later (C) they have become oriented into a twenty three-ply laminated structure like that found in normal axolotls.
The inner layers of the egg capsule wall consist of fibres of collagen-like protein arranged in parallel sheets. 4 µm thick, are set at 45° (Knight & Hunt, 1974b). Graptolites are an extinct group of marine colonial organisms, widely distributed in the seas during the early Paleozoic. They form one class (Graptolithina) of the phylum Hemichordata, itself closely related to the Chordata. Well-preserved fossil graptolites may be chemically isolated and then sectioned for transmission electron microscopy.