By Jamie Davies
Branching morphogenesis, the construction of branched constructions within the physique, is a key characteristic of animal and plant improvement. This ebook brings jointly, for the 1st time, professional researchers engaged on various branching platforms to offer a cutting-edge view of the mechanisms that keep an eye on branching morphogenesis. structures thought of variety from unmarried cells, to blood vessel and drainage duct structures to whole physique plans, and methods variety from commentary via scan to precise biophysical modelling. the result's an built-in evaluate of branching.
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Additional resources for Branching Morphogenesis (Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit)
Instead, exogenous BDNF selectively increases dendritic spine density for these Purkinje cells, demonstrating that individual aspects of dendrite arbor structure may be independently regulated by neurotrophins during development. ^^'^^^ When considered together, recent findings indicate that a variety of pathways contribute to the spatiotemporal regulation of neurotrophin signaling, enabling the local control of dendritic branching that is necessary for establishing appropriate circuitry during nervous system development.
Interestingly, only GPI-anchored ephrin-A signaling stimulates morphological changes that do not direcdy contribute to initial axon guidance. ^^' -279,288 p^j. "^^^'"^^^'"^^^ In combination, these recent studies demonstrate that ephrins serve numerous roles during neuronal morphogenesis, collectively regulating axonal or dendritic outgrowth, fasciculation, and arborization. Semaphorins Semaphorins constitute a large family of secreted and transmembrane proteins variously involved in growth cone collapse (CoUapsin-l/Semaphorin IIIA ^), axon guidance through chemorepulsion (CoUapsin-l/Semaphorin IIIA, HID '•^^^), stimulation or inhibition of axonal arborization (Semaphorin IILA85-87,29 ^^ ^j^j neuronal apoptosis (Semaphorin IIIA^^^).
Neurotrophic Factors Neurotrophic factors, a family of structurally related homodimeric proteins originally identified through their ability to sustain neuronal survival, also regulate diverse aspects of neuronal differentiation and morphogenesis. ^^^^^'^^^'^^^'^^^'^^^ In many regions of die mammalian CNS, neurotrophin expression is developmentally regulated, producing a characteristic pattern of maximum NT-3 synthesis and release during embryonic periods, with BDNF availability instead largely restricted to periods of postnatal differentiation.