By Robert Lewis
From the lumberyards and meatpacking factories of the Southwest aspect to the economic suburbs that arose close to Lake Calumet on the flip of the 20th century, production districts formed Chicago’s personality and laid the foundation for its transformation right into a sprawling city. forthcoming Chicago’s tale as a mirrored image of America’s commercial heritage among the Civil battle and international battle II, Chicago Made explores not just the well-documented workings of centrally positioned urban factories but additionally the missed suburbanization of producing and its profound impression at the metropolitan landscape. Robert Lewis files how brands, interested in greenfield websites at the city’s outskirts, started to construct manufacturing facility districts there with assistance from an complex community of railroad vendors, genuine property builders, financiers, and wholesalers. those gigantic networks of social ties, organizational memberships, and fiscal relationships have been eventually extra consequential, Lewis demonstrates, than anybody success. past easily giving Chicago companies aggressive merits, they reworked the industrial geography of the sector. Tracing those ameliorations throughout seventy-five years, Chicago Made establishes a large new beginning for our knowing of city business America.
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Extra resources for Chicago Made: Factory Networks in the Industrial Metropolis (Historical Studies of Urban America)
More than 5,000 ﬁrms accounted for more than two-thirds of the metropolitan area’s manufacturing stock. 2 0 Meat source: Lakeside Annual Business Directory for 1881 (Chicago, 1881). a The location quotient (LQ) measures the degree to which an activity or a group is concentrated in a speciﬁc area compared to all activities. An LQ of 1 means that the activity is geographically distributed to the same extent as all other activities. A number greater than 1 means that the activity is concentrated, while less than 1 means that it is not.
Steel and Inland Steel. These giants coexisted with smaller steel, aluminum, or brass foundries, such as Chicago Heights Brass Foundry and the city’s Alloys and Brass Foundry, which made castings to order with a handful of workers. A similar story was evident for many other sectors. Printing was broken into several industries—printing (job, book, and magazine), publishing, lithographing, bookbinding—all of which diﬀered greatly from one another in the way that they organized production. Large printing and newspaper publishing companies such as Donnelley and Sons and Illinois Publishing with thousands of employees rubbed shoulders with hand-to-mouth printers working a single machine with no workers.
S. Census, Compendium of the Tenth Census ( June 1, 1880), vol. 2 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Oﬃce, 1883); Directory of Illinois Manufacturers, 1924–1925 (Chicago: Illinois Manufacturers’ Association, 1924). note: The number of ﬁrms with employees in 1924 is not the same as the total number of ﬁrms. and paper goods, experienced moderate growth. Even though these sectors were never large, they built a respectable niche in the local economy before 1940. Both new and old industries powered Chicago to manufacturing preeminence.