Download Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of Primate Muscles and by Rui Diogo PDF

By Rui Diogo

This publication demanding situations the idea that morphological facts are inherently wrong for phylogeny reconstruction, argues that either molecular and morphological phylogenies may still play a huge function in systematics, and gives the main complete evaluation of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pinnacle, neck, pectoral and higher limb muscle tissues of primates.

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3). The adductor pollicis became weakly differentiated into transverse and oblique heads in the Haplorrhini, and then these heads became further differentiated in catarrhines. The fusion between the latissimus dorsi and teres major was independently acquired in Tupaia, and secondarily lost in Homininae. The opponens digiti minimi became slightly differentiated into superficial and deep bundles in the Catarrhini, and then these heads became further separated in cercopithecids. Cercopithecidae (clade 14: Colobus, Cercopithecus, Papio, Macaca) Stylohyoideus is partially pierced by the digastricus posterior and/or by the intermediate digastric tendon [11:0→1], Geniohyoideus is fused to its counterpart in the midline [57:0→1], Flexor digitorum profundus is not innervated by the ulnar nerve [111:0→1], Opponens digiti minimi has well separated superficial and deep bundles [149:1→2, ordered].

The taxonomic nomenclature mainly follows that of Fabre et al. (2009; see Chapter 2). CSVs and/or BSVs that are ≥ 94]. , Shoshani et al’s 1996 cladistic analysis included 18 extant primate genera and used 264 (mostly osteological) characters, but the chimp-human clade had a low level of support (BSV of 42)]. 159) [SEEONTHELEFT] 18 55 110 112 124 131 1 1 1 1 1 2 13 14 19 1 1 1 1 25 Fig. 2 Single most parsimonious tree (L 301, CI 58, RI 73) obtained from the analysis of the complete dataset (166 characters).

3), but not of the PU dataset (Fig. , the Cebidae is not monophyletic). ’s (2010) study and in the most recent and comprehensive molecular analysis of platyrrhine relationships (Wildman et al. 2009), it is closer to Callithrix, as it is in our study (Figs. 2). The stylohyoideus was independently lost in Cynocephalus. Callithrix (terminal taxon) Reversion of “Pterygoideus lateralis has well differentiated inferior and superior heads” [9:1→0], Reversion of “Depressor anguli oris is a distinct muscle” [39:1→0], Reversion of “Trapezius inserts onto the clavicle” [45:1→0], Trapezius does not originate 36 Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of Primate Muscles and Human Evolution from the cranium [48:0→1], Anterior portion of sternothyroideus extends anteriorly to the posterior portion of the thyrohyoideus [64:0→1], Reversion of “Rhomboideus major and rhomboideus minor are not distinct muscles” [69:1→0], Reversion of “Opponens pollicis is a distinct muscle” [143:1→0].

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