By Preeti S Chauhan, Anupam Choubey, ZhaoWei Zhong, Michael G Pecht
This serious quantity presents an in-depth presentation of copper cord bonding applied sciences, tactics and kit, in addition to the commercial merits and dangers. end result of the expanding expense of fabrics used to make digital elements, the electronics has been quickly relocating from excessive fee gold to noticeably lower price copper as a cord bonding fabric. besides the fact that, copper cord bonding has a number of approach and reliability issues because of its fabric houses. Copper twine Bonding e-book lays out the demanding situations desirous about changing gold with copper as a twine bond fabric, and comprises the bonding technique changes—bond strength, electrical flame off, present and ultrasonic strength optimization, and bonding instruments and gear adjustments for first and moment bond formation. additionally, the bond–pad metallurgies and using naked and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are awarded, and gold, nickel and palladium floor finishes are mentioned. The publication additionally discusses top practices and suggestions at the bond approach, bond–pad metallurgies, and acceptable reliability checks for copper wire-bonded digital components.
In precis, this book:
- Introduces copper twine bonding technologies
- Presents copper cord bonding processes
- Discusses copper twine bonding metallurgies
- Covers fresh developments in copper cord bonding together with the bonding strategy, gear adjustments, bond–pad fabrics and floor finishes
- Covers the reliability checks and concerns
- Covers the present implementation of copper cord bonding within the electronics industry
- positive factors a hundred and twenty figures and tables
Copper twine Bonding is a necessary reference for pros looking exact details on all aspects of copper twine bonding technology.
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Additional info for Copper Wire Bonding
The EFO current and firing time must also be optimized to minimize the HAZ. As the EFO current and firing time decrease, the HAZ length decreases. With the increase in current, the arc duration required to form the FAB decreases. The decrease in arc duration, in turn, results in less available time for the effect of heat to penetrate axially along the wire away from the ball. Since the metal has a finite diffusivity, the length of penetration of the heat effects decreases with higher currents .
Since the use of bare copper wires is a concern owing to the propensity of copper to oxidize, oxidation prevention technology is needed. The chapter discusses the two oxidation prevention technologies used in the industry, including cover gas and oxidation prevention coating. The wire bonding parameters govern the quality of formed free air balls (FABs) and subsequent first and second bonds. The effect of electrical flame-off current and firing time on formed FABs, and the effect of ultrasonic energy, bonding force, bonding temperature, and time on wire bond quality, is explained, and the optimal parameter ranges are listed.
The ratio of bonded ball volume to FAB volume was found to be 33 % for Au and 64 % for Cu. This difference is significant, indicating that most of the FAB was captured inside the capillary for Au wire, whereas for Cu wire, most of the FAB was outside the capillary as a bonded ball. A lower ratio of bonded ball volume to FAB volume results in a taller ball bond for Au wire compared to Cu. The Cu FAB should be made smaller than Au FABs. Another damage mechanism related to the bonding process is known as Al splash, which is defined as the amount of material displacement outside the bonded ball contact perimeter.