By Graeme Garrard
The Enlightenment and its legacy are nonetheless actively debated, with the Enlightenment performing as a key organizing suggestion in philosophy, social thought and the background of rules. Counter-Enlightenments is the 1st full-length research to house the background and improvement of counter-enlightenment suggestion from its inception within the eighteenth century all over to the current. conducting a serious discussion with Isaiah Berlin’s paintings, this publication analyzes the concept that of counter-enlightenment and a few of an important matters and difficulties it increases. Graeme Garrard explores the varied sorts of suggestion during this box, with a wide-ranging overview of the primary figures of the prior 200 and fifty years, and an incisive evaluate of the persuasiveness of the most typical and critical criticisms of the Enlightenment.
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58 Shortly after Emile had been officially condemned in France, Diderot wrote to his mistress that Rousseau ‘has the devout party on his side. He owes their interest in him to the bad things he says about the philosophes. . ’60 Rousseau’s eagerness to eradicate the wall that the philosophes were anxious to build between church and state can be better understood when it is borne in mind that he was a proud citizen of Geneva, which had no tradition of such a separation. For the general will to be generated and then to be sovereign, it is necessary that the structure of society be so closely unified that there is no room left for any kind of independent association within the body politic which might constitute a rival will with an interest of its own.
17 He wrote to a friend asking: ‘What about Jean-Jacques’s book against the theatre? ’18 The fact that the orthodox Jesuit priest Guillaume-François Berthier (1704–1784) admired Rousseau’s letter was simply grist for Voltaire’s mill. 22 Eventually, as Peter Gay notes, Rousseau ‘was treated as a madman by other philosophes long before his clinical symptoms became obtrusive’,23 no doubt due to his seemingly inexplicable ‘betrayal’ of the Enlightenment. The core of the critique of the Enlightenment developed by Rousseau lies in his decisive modification of its rejection of social contract theory.
This became the first significant skirmish in what would eventually develop into a full-scale war between Rousseau and the philosophes. However, open warfare did not come until Rousseau’s Letter to d’Alembert (1758), which attacked the performance of modern theatre on Genevese territory when Voltaire was staging plays at his estate near Geneva and persuading its citizens to take part in them. Rousseau blamed ‘that buffoon’ First shots 19 Voltaire for ruining his homeland by corrupting its morals.