By Hamid Reza Norouzi, Reza Zarghami, Rahmat Sotudeh-Gharebagh, Navid Mostoufi
Discusses the CFD-DEM approach to modeling which mixes either the Discrete point process and Computational Fluid Dynamics to simulate fluid-particle interactions.
- Deals with either theoretical and functional techniques of CFD-DEM, its numerical implementation observed via a hands-on numerical code in FORTRAN
- Gives examples of business applications
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66] with a different functionality for ηn. It is not very common to calculate η n using material properties of particles and in discrete element simulations, the value of η n is adjusted to fit the experimental results of the normal coefficient of restitution. Tsuji et al.  proposed a nonlinear force model similar to the KKn model but with a slightly different viscous term. We name this model the TTIn model. 62) 3 ( ) where ηn is damping coefficient of the TTIn model. It can be seen that the viscous forces in both models are functions of normal deformation and normal relative velocity of particles.
By introducing a damper, similar to what considered in the linear viscoelastic model, the energy dissipation is introduced in this model. All nonlinear normal viscoelastic force‐displacement models use the Hertz theory to describe the elastic behavior of collision. The only difference among these models is the viscous force. Thus, the Hertzian elastic model is the first presented here, followed by nonlinear viscoelastic models. 7. The particle deforms as a result of normal force, Fl, and interacts with the wall via a circular contact area with radius a.
3 Interparticle Forces Interparticle forces are mostly referred to as non‐contact interactions between bodies that are separated by a distance of d. These forces may be attractive or repulsive. Generally, the attractive or repulsive interparticle force is a continuous function of separation distance of bodies. 19) d2 Interparticle forces exist between particles during their movements and each particle interacts with all other surrounding particles. The physics of interparticle forces does not allow us to directly incorporate them into the hard‐sphere formulation since this formulation is based on instantaneous and binary events.