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By R. Rappaport

This publication strains the heritage of a few of the foremost principles within the box and provides an account of our present wisdom of animal cytokinesis. It comprises descriptions of department in numerous sorts of cells and the proposed factors of the mechanisms underlying the seen occasions. the writer additionally describes and explains experiments devised to check mobile department theories. The forces worthwhile for cytokinesis now seem to originate from the interplay of linear polymers and motor molecules that experience roles in strength creation, movement and form swap that take place in different levels of the biology of the mobile. The localization of the force-producing mechanism to a constrained linear a part of the subsurface is because of the mitotic equipment, an identical cytoskeletal constitution that insures orderly mitosis.

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Extra resources for Cytokinesis in animal cells

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Yatsu (1912a) explained ctenophore egg cleavage by combining equatorial constriction and astral cleavage mechanisms. Additive effect of the centrosomes, he proposed, causes a surface tension increase along the cleavage plane. " Then, the fluid endoplasm gathers around the centrosomes and the movement of cytoplasm out of the equatorial region draws the cleavage head through the cell. In this hypothesis, the cleavage head is not an active agent. K. Dan (1943b) proposed that the deformation and elongation of the THEORIES OF CELL DIVISION 49 early phase of cytokinesis and the later stages of constriction and completion are caused by two different, smoothly coordinated mechanisms.

Wilson (1928) characterized these ideas as a "beautiful hypothesis" although he pointed out that the arrangement of rays that Van Beneden postulated does not exist in many cells. Heidenhain (1897) presented a clear, carefully reasoned version of this theory that was typical of his time. It appears to follow logically from his conception of the basis of the physical structure of cells and from the particular cells that he chose to study. He maintained that the scaffolding, or cytoskeleton, that supported and controlled animal cell shape consisted of linear arrays of contractile molecules ("wie die Gleider einer Kette" - like the links of a chain) that permeated the cytoplasm at all times.

If at this point the model were hung on a perpendicular surface, the distance between the hinges decreased. Heidenhain believed that in this circumstance gravity acted like a force generated by the anaphase B movement of the asters, which affected the surface contour through the radii and the tension they generate. Further constriction was obtained by drilling holes through the midpoint of both pieces of spring steel and inserting a hook on a shaft (f), engaging each of the rings, and pulling them closer to the surface (g).

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