Worlds at War: The 2,500-Year Struggle Between East and West

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If no unanimity could be achieved, the Council would be disrupted, and this disruption would reveal the existence of a schism in the Church. Depending on the culture and governmental style it can range from a simple influence to a complete control of society. In other words, new customs today may become entrenched and be called "traditional" by those in the future. His most famous sculpture is likely his gigantic David created to stand in front of Florence’s town hall.

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The Unfinished Legacy: A Brief History of Western

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Many people believe it should be challenged in the international courts, as it breaches Australia's international obligations on human rights. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, wayside drainage system, and multistoried houses. And even then I didn't know whom I had there, opposite me, busy now devouring a slice of p t de foie gras. You can jump multiple levels in the blink of an eye when a Cultural Civ picks an Ideology and instantly begins this type of Influence over your Citizens or a Civ following your Ideology has influence levels over you and suddenly changes to the dominant Ideology.

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Constructing Identities in Late Antiquity

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She made the sign of the cross in the air to protect herself. Only the great sanctuary of Meshed was being kept up and built up. For good or evil I left that house committed to an enterprise that could not be talked about; which would have appeared to many senseless and perhaps ridiculous, but was certainly full of risks, and, apart from that, commanded discretion on the ground of simple loyalty. As with the Spanish experience in Mesoamerica and the British experience in Australia, contemporary New English observers noted the local climate changes in New England by the late 1700s, when the summers got hotter, the winters colder, and the land became more arid.� Streams disappeared during the summer and flooded in the winter.� In his classic study, William Cronon noted that New England became �sunnier, windier, hotter, colder, and drier� than before it was deforested. [808] � The eastern seaboard began turning to British coal soon after the American Revolution. � British coal was cheaper than coal hauled 50 kilometers overland in the USA, and early America relied on British coal.� It was not until canals and railroads were built that the USA began to use its domestically mined coal.� The anthracite mines of Pennsylvania turned Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Philadelphia, and other cities in the region into the heart of early American industry.� Steam l ocomotives were invented in Great Britain and the USA in the late 1700s, and Richard Trevithick is credited with building the first steam-powered railroad in 1804, after many years of effort.� The Erie Canal opened for business in 1825, and the USA�s first common carrier railroad was built between Baltimore and the Ohio River in 1830, as Baltimore competed with the canals that serviced Philadelphia and New York.� Railroads became humanity�s first low-energy transportation lanes that were not bodies of water (roads kind of qualified, but they were minor advances compared to railroads).� Many American cites were not built on bodies of water but along rail lines and, later, roads traveled by cars and trucks.

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The Voynich Manuscript Illustrated: "One of the most

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Archimedes had proved that the sphere has two thirds of the volume and surface area of the cylinder (including the bases of the latter), and regarded this as the greatest of his mathematical achievements. After the retirement of the powerful Musa from Spanish affairs, the country endured vicissitudes and factional rivalries until Abd al-Rahman, sole remnant of the Omayids, became ruler of Spain and founder of the Omayid Caliphate of Cordova.

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Rome, Europe, and the World: A Reader's History of the

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Entertain always pure, sublime thoughts. They believed that people should also write inthe language that was familiar to the people. All negative thoughts are forerunners of disease, and they are messengers of death. They were capable of fighting to the death for a principle. American Indians of central Brazil, called, the Kayapo are a modern version of hunter gatherer people. Such errors should not induce too much pessimism: at Athens at least, individual aristocratic families preserved oral traditions, which affected the later literary records in ways that can be properly understood with the help of anthropological analogy.

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Forbidden History: Prehistoric Technologies,

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Etruscan arts were strongly influenced by their trading relationship with Greece, although (like the Egyptians but unlike the Greeks) they believed in an after-life. Mac Iver uses the word ‘civilization’ to denote utilitarian things the whole mechanism and social organism techniques and material instruments which have been devised by man in his endeavour to control the conditions of his life. Since the Freedom, Order, and Autocracy policy trees are gone, many of the remaining policies have been rebalanced and some new trees were added.

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A Study of History, Volume 12: Reconsiderations

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They lead an aimless life and therefore are drifted hither and thither like a piece of straw. Greeks were recently literate in Socrates' time. But it's his business to find out things. The most lavish medieval books were bound in covers set with enamels, jewels, and ivory carvings." Some cells secrete, while some cells excrete. Sociologists would argue that a cow is not necessarily a cow, and that cultural variation ultimately dictates our assessment and treatment of things in society.

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Endangered Species: Mass Violence and the Future of Humanity

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The running rivers, the shining sun, fragrant flowers, the growing trees, are all incessantly sending you suggestions. Traditional Iranian themes—battles, receptions, feasts—acquired monumentality, not only because of the inordinate size of the images but also because almost all of the objects and figures depicted were seen in terms of mass rather than line. He who has pure thoughts speaks very powerfully and produces deep impression on the minds of the hearers by his speech. This brought on a profound sense of disillusionment with the values of Western Civilization.

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Origin and Diffusion of Maya Civilization: The

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In summary, today�s orthodox late-Proterozoic hypothesis is that the complex dynamics of a supercontinent breakup somehow triggered the runaway effects that led to a global glaciation. �The global glaciation was reversed by runaway effects primarily related to an immense increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide.� During the Greenhouse Earth events, oceanic life would have been delivered vast amounts of continental nutrients scoured from the rocks by glaciers, and the hot conditions would have combined to create a global explosion of photosynthetic life.� A billion years of relative equilibrium between prokaryotes and eukaryotes was ultimately shattered, and oxygen levels began rising during the Cryogenian and Ediacaran periods toward modern levels.� Largely sterilized oceans, which began to be oxygenated at depth for the first time, are now thought to have prepared the way for what came next: the rise of complex life.� Fossils are created by undisturbed organism remains that become saturated with various chemicals, which gradually replace the organic material with rock by several different processes of mineralization. [146] � Few life forms ever become fossils but are instead consumed by other life.� Rare dynamics lead to fossil formation, usually by anoxic conditions leading to undisturbed sediments that protect the evidence and fossilize it.� Scientists estimate that only about 1%-2% of all species that ever existed have left behind fossils that have been recovered.� Geological processes are continually creating new land, both on the continents and under the ocean.� Seafloor strata do not provide much insight into life�s ancient past, particularly fossils, because the process recycles the oceanic crust in �mere� hundreds of millions of years .� The basic process is that, in the Atlantic and Pacific sea floors in particular, oceanic volcanic ridges spew out basalt and the plates flow toward the surrounding continents.� When oceanic plates reach continental plates, the heavier mafic (basaltic) oceanic plates are subducted below the lighter felsic (granitic) continental plates.� Parts of an oceanic plate were entirely subducted into the mantle more than 100 mya and left behind plate fragments.� On the continents, however, as they have floated on the heavier rocks, tectonic and erosional processes have not obliterated all ancient rocks and fossils.� The oldest �indigenous� rocks yet found on Earth are more than four billion years old .� Stromatolites have been dated to 3.5 bya, and fossils of individual cyanobacteria have been dated to 1.5 bya. [147] � There are recent claims of finding fossils of individual organisms dated to 3.4 bya .� The oldest eukaryote fossils found so far are of algae dated to 1.2 bya .� Th e first amoeba-like vase-shaped fossils date from about 750 mya, and there are recent claims of finding the first animal fossils in Namibia, of sponge-like creatures which are up to 760 million years old. [148] �Fo ssils from 665 mya in Australia might be the first animal fossils, and some scientists think that animals may have first appeared about one bya. �The first animals, or metazoans, probably descended from choanoflagellates .� The flagellum is a tail-like appendage that protists primarily used to move and it could also be used to create a current to capture food.� Flagella were used to draw food into the first animals, which would have been sponge-like.� When the first colonies developed in which unicellular organisms began to specialize and act in concert, animals were born, and it is currently thought that the evolution of animals probably only happened once. [149] � In interpreting the fossil record, there are four general levels of confidence: inevitable conclusions (such as ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles), likely interpretations (ichthyosaurs appeared to give live birth instead of laying eggs), speculations (were ichthyosaurs warm-blooded?), and guesses (what color was an ichthyosaur?). [150] During the eon of complex life, the geologic time scale is divided by the distinctive fossils found in the sedimentary layers attributed to that time.� Before the eon of complex life (that ancient time before complex life first appeared, which represents about 90% of Earth�s existence so far, is called the Precambrian supereon today), fossils were microscopic and rare.� Over time, geophysical forces eradicate sedimentary layers, and for the earliest animals, their fossils are found in only a few places on Earth.� The first animal fossils of significance formed about 600 mya and are strange creatures to modern eyes.� They were first noticed in 1868 in Newfoundland, but the fledgling paleontological profession dismissed them, not recognizing them as fossils. [151] �In Namibia in 1933, those Precambrian fossils were again noted but given a Cambrian chronology because the day�s prevailing hypothesis placed the beginning of animal life during the Cambrian Explosion .� In 1946, in the Ediacara Hills in Australia, more such strange fossils were found in what were thought to be Precambrian rocks, but it was not until 1957, when those fossils were found in England, in rocks positively identified as Precambrian, that the first period of animal life, the Ediacaran, was on its way to recognition (it was not officially named the Ediacaran until 2004, for the first new period recognized since the 19th century).� In China, the Doushantuo Formation has provided fossils from about 635 mya to 550 mya, which covers the Ediacaran Period (c. 635 to 541 mya), and Ediacaran fossils have been found in a few other places.� Microscopic algae spores and animal embryos abound in Doushantuo cherts, and the spores look like little suns and other fanciful shapes.� Almost all of them went extinct within a few million years of appearing in the fossil record, for an �invisible� mass extinction. [152] � That mass extinction directly preceded the appearance of the first large organisms that Earth ever saw: Ediacaran fauna (also called �Ediacaran biota� in certain scientific circles, as there is debate whether those Ediacaran fossils were animal remains [153] ).� Early Ediacaran fossil finds were often dismissed as pseudofossils because they did not fit the prevailing idea of an animal or plant, and Dickinsonia left the most famous Ediacaran fossils.� Today, the most likely interpretation seems to be that Dickensonias flopped themselves down on bacterial mats and fed on them .� When one finished eating a mat, it flopped its way to another.� It was a bilateral-like creature and is today classified into an extinct phylum with other Ediacaran fauna.� It has reasonably been speculated that Dickinsonia got its oxygen through diffusion across its surface, and that oxygen levels had to be at least 10% of today's to achieve that. [154] � Charnia looked like a plant but almost certainly was not, and is classified into another extinct phylum.� Phyla are body plans, and Ediacaran fauna are indeed strange looking.� There is debate whether the Ediacaran fauna were plants, animals, or neither, and that debate will not end soon.� Spriggina resembled a trilobite and may have been its ancestor.� Paths in the sediments, called feeding traces, have been found, but there was no deep burrowing in the Ediacaran Period.� In the last few million years of the Ediacaran, the first skeletons appeared, particularly of Cloudinids. [155] �Th at characteristic Ediacaran fauna suddenly appeared in the fossil record about 575 mya and all abruptly disappeared about 542 mya.� Below are images of those Ediacaran forms, which can appear so bizarre to people today.� (Source for all images: Wikimedia Commons) There has been controversy regarding why Ediacaran fauna quickly disappeared and even if their disappearance qualifies as a mass extinction. [156] � One idea is that their disappearance was due to predation by what became Cambrian fauna, and another is that they ate their food sources to extinction, but it appears more likely that it may have been an extinction brought on by anoxic oceans .� Cambrian fauna filled the vacant niches and then some when the ocean became oxygenated again.� Although Ediacaran fauna did not move much, their existence was probably owed to some oxygenation of the oceans, and although their metabolisms would have been slow compared to the animals that followed them, they may not have been able to survive in anoxic oceans.� Ediacaran anoxic events are also when the first Middle East oil deposits were formed .� The Proto-Tethys Ocean appeared in the Ediacaran, followed by the Paleo-Tethys and the Tethys, and those oceanic basins eventually all disappeared and their seafloors were subducted by colliding continents.� Those subducted basins became the primary source of Middle East oil, which are extracted from Earth�s most gigantic hydrocarbon deposits.

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Foundations of Indian Culture: Spiritual Vision and Symbolic

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In the Timurid period the use of colour in architecture reached a high point. In geological the east by the Great Rift valley and the mountains that surround it. Trade Units can be attacked by enemy forces or barbarians, but the movement of the unit not under the direct control of the player. What made it possible for our ancestors to begin living in temperate and ultimately subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere after half a million years ago was the invention of efficient hunting skills, fire use, and, ultimately, clothing, warm housing, agriculture, and commerce.

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